Trinidad and Tobago are continental islands with a continental flora and fauna. But the Tobago fauna is more similar to central Venezuela that the Trinidad fauna that is more similar to the Peninsula de Paria in eastern Venezuela.
Madera Canyon is an easily accessed sky island ecosystem in southeastern Arizona. I am investigating the species that have been described from material collected in Madera Canyon. Preliminary results suggest more that 100 species of animals have type localities and type material originating from the canyon.
There are more than 350 species of snakes that use aquatic habitats that range from the oceans and coastal regions to freshwater streams and ponds. They use a variety of resources and are important predators in the environments in which they live. This project is a spin off of Homalopsid snakes are a small clade of aquatic, semi-aquatic, and terrestrial species that range from Pakistan’s Indus River eastward to China, Micronesia, and Australasia. The family forms two clades, one fangless and restricted to Indonesia and Australasia. And, a fanged clade with rear fangs and venom glands.